SY 2017/2018: Fine Arts Second Semester (Art)

The Second Semester of Fine Arts for the SY 2017/2018 consists of an 18 week art history study of Winslow Homer and watercolor techniques. The First Semester of Fine Arts (Music) is also an 18 week study and thus together make a year’s study of Fine Arts.

Winslow Homer
February 24, 1836 – September 29, 1910

Winslow Homer, an American landscape painter and printmaker is best known for his marine subjects,  he is considered one of the foremost painters in 19th-centuryWinslow_Homer_by_Sarony America.  His genre of art is called pastoralism and realism. He is self-taught and began his career working as a commercial illustrator. He began oil painting and produced major studio works characterized by weight and density. He then moved onto working extensively in watercolor. Homer was very private about his personal life and his methods, but he clearly had independence of style and a devotion to American subjects. His impact in the art world was revolutionary.

He was born in Boston, Massachusetts in 1836 and is the second of three sons of Charles Savage Homer and Henrietta Benson Homer.  He grew up in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He had a happy childhood and was an average student in school; however, his art talent was very evident.

After his graduation from high school graduation, his father arranged for an apprenticeship to J. H. Bufford, a Boston commercial lithographer where he worked on sheet music covers and other commercial work. In 1857, he began a freelance career contributing illustrations of Boston life and rural New England life to magazines such as Ballou’s Pictorial and Harper’s Weekly.

His early work consisted of commercial engravings of urban and country social scenes. These pieces were characterized by clean outlines, simplified forms, dramatic contrast of light and dark, and lively figure groupings.  These were the qualities that remained important throughout his career.  His quick success was mostly due to his strong understanding of graphic design and also to the adaptability of his designs to wood engraving.

In 1859, he opened a studio in the Tenth Street Studio Building in New York City, which was considered the artistic and publishing capital of the United States. Until 1863, he attended classes at the National Academy of Design, and studied briefly with Frédéric Rondel, who taught him the basics of painting. In only about a year of self-training, Homer was producing excellent oil work.

The American Civil War had a tremendous impact on Homer’s artistic style.  Harper’s sent Homer to the front lines of the American Civil War (1861–1865) to sketch battle scenes and camp life. His initial sketches were of the camp, commanders, and army.  He turned a few of his military sketches into paintings.

After the war, Homer refocuses his artist vision. Homer turned his attention primarily to scenes of childhood and young women, reflecting nostalgia for simpler times.  Homer was also interested in postwar subject matter that conveyed the silent tension between two communities seeking to understand their future. He demonstrates a maturity of feeling, depth of perception, and mastery of technique which was immediately recognized. His realism was objective, true to nature, and emotionally controlled.

Before exhibiting at the National Academy of Design, Homer traveled to Paris, France, in 1867 where he remained for a year. His most praised early painting, Prisoners from the Front, was on exhibit at the Exposition Universelle in Paris at the same time. This was a tremendous honor.  While he did not study formally when in Paris, he practiced landscape painting  and focused on depicting scenes from Parisian life. He also continuing to work for Harper’s during this time period.

Homer became a member of The Tile Club, a group of artists and writers who met frequently to exchange ideas and organize outings for painting, as well as foster the creation of decorative tiles. For a short time, he designed tiles for fireplaces.

When he returned to the United States, Homer started painting with watercolors during his 1873  summer stay in Gloucester, Massachusetts. From the beginning, his technique was natural, fluid and confident, demonstrating his talent for a difficult medium.   Homer spent two years (1881–1882) in the English coastal village of Cullercoats, Tyne and Wear. Many of the paintings at Cullercoats took as their subjects working men and women and their daily activities.

By 1900, Homer reached financial stability.  His paintings fetched good prices from museums and he began to receive rents from real estate properties. Homer continued producing excellent watercolors, mostly on trips to Canada and the Caribbean. His late seascapes are especially valued for their dramatic and forceful expression of natures powers, and for their beauty and intensity.

Homer died in 1910 at the age of 74 in his Prouts Neck studio and was interred in the Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts. His painting, Shooting the Rapids, Saguenay River, remains unfinished.

In 1962, the U.S. Post Office released a commemorative stamp honoring Winslow Homer. Homer’s famous oil painting “Breezing Up”  was chosen as the image for the design of this issue. On August 12, 2010, The Postal Service issued a 44-cent commemorative stamp featuring Homer’s “Boys in a Pasture” at the APS Stamp Show in Richmond, Virginia.

Works To Be Studied

We will utilize the Charlotte Mason method of picture study.  This Semester in Fine Arts we will study the following seven works by Homer:

  1. Prisoners from the Front
  2. Home Sweet Home
  3. Snap the Whip
  4. The Fog Warning
  5. Deer in the Adirondacks
  6. The Fox Hunt
  7. The Turtle Pond

First introduce Winslow Homer to your children by reading the narrative above.  There is a documentary style movie made about Winslow Homer’s life, Winslow Homer: An American Original, you may want to check your local library, Amazon or Ebay to see if you can find it.  It is difficult to find because it is out of print.  Also, discuss the historical events that unfolded during the artist’s life. In the case of Homer, the American Civil War. Discuss the type of  personality Winslow Homer had and if it had any impact upon the subject of his works or the medium he used.

For each piece of work ask the children to find the artists signature.  Discuss what the work shows and why they think the artists choose to create the work. Discuss the background information, if available of each piece.  Discuss the medium used to make the work — watercolor, oil pastel, pencil, etc. Discuss the color palette of the work. Be sure to place the work in a prominent place in your house where they can see it each day.  (In our house it’s hung on the refrigerator.) Allow your children to view the work until they can see it in their mind’s eye and describe it to you without looking at it. Display and discuss one work per week of the semester. At a minimum, the picture study component of this semester of Fine Arts should take seven weeks.

Resources

These resources should be completed prior to the end of this semester of Fine Arts. My children will complete one activity per week. Thus, taking ten weeks to complete.

  1. Video:  Winslow Homer: An American Artist
  2. Video:  Winslow Homer’s America
  3. Video:  Winslow Homer Art History Lectures Part 1, Part 2
  4. Activity (with Video):  How to Clean Watercolor Brushes
  5. Activity (with Video):  Watercolor Techniques
  6. Activity (with Video): Painting Like Homer
  7. Activity (with Video:  How to Paint a Simple Landscape in Watercolor
  8. Vocabulary for Fine Arts Second Semester (Art)
  9. Homer Notebooking Page
  10. Quizlet to Study Vocabulary and Works

Second Semester Fine Arts (Art) Examination & Grading

In order to issue a grade for my children for the second semester of fine arts in art, I evaluate and issue a grade for the notebooking page completed. I will also give my children the Fine Arts Second Semester Examination (Art) on the last week of the course. Alternatively , the Quizlet can be used to generate an examination which is automatically graded. The final grade of this semester is determined by averaging the notebooking grade with the examination.

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Art Study: Final Project

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A final project on an artist of  your choice is the capstone to our art study.  I encourage you to  select an artist whose work you like for your final project. You should choose three pieces of the artist’s work to highlight.

Let your creativity guide you.  Your report can be any format that you choose. The choices are endless.  If you prefer to use a template, one is provided below.

A grading rubric is provided too.

Art Study Final Project Template

Grading Rubric:

writing rubric

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Art Study: Pop Art

Pop Art is an abbreviation for “popular art”,  which is a style of art that emerge as a direct response to abstract expressionism. The style emerged in the U.K. and the U.S. during the 1950s and was inspired by everyday objects and bright colors, so that everyone could appreciate and enjoy the art.

ANDY WHAROL

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Andy Warhol was an American artist who lead this visual art movement. His works explore the relationship between artistic express, celebrity culture, and advertising that flourished in the 1960s. He used a variety of media, including painting, silk screening, photography, film, and sculpture. One of his best know works includes silk screen paintings of Campbell Soup Cans.

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JASPER JOHNS

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Jasper Johns was an artist that came onto the scene in the late 1950s. Much of he created led the American public away from the expressionism form, and towards an art movement or form known as the concrete. He would depict many flags and maps, and this created a more distinct style with the work that was being done during this period in American art history. He was also one of the leading forces to the pop form known as minimalism. Many of his pieces that are sold at auction still bring extremely high prices and sell for record amounts.

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One of his more famous paints is Three Flags. As an iconic image John realized that the flag was “seen and not looked at, not examined.”  The execution and composition of Three Flags require close inspection by the view.  The painting draws attention to the process of its making through His use of encaustic and its structural arrangement adds to its complexity.

RESOURCES

We will utilize the Charlotte Mason method of picture study.  We will study the following pieces of art:  Warhol’s Campbell Soup Cans and John’s Three Flags.

Multimedia

  • A video on Andy Warhol for children.
  • A video on Jasper Johns.
  • A video on pop art.

Pop Art Notebooking Page

Vocabulary 4

Quizlet

 

Artist Study: James Whistler

Abbott McNeill Whistler (July 10, 1834 – July 14, 1903) was an American painter and etcher who active during the American Gilded Age.

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James Abbott McNeill Whistler was born in Lowell, Massachusetts, on July 10, 1834. He was the son of Major George Whistler, a railroad engineer, and Anna McNeill.  In 1842 Czar Nicholas I (1796-1855) of Russia invited Major Whistler to build a railroad from St. Petersburg to Moscow. Whistler lived in St. Petersburg and his interest in drawing grew. He eventually enrolled in a drawing course at the Academy of Fine Arts.

When his father died in 1849, his family retuned to the United States settling in Pomfret, Connecticut.  Whistler went to West Point, where his father attended.  At West point he did poorly in chemistry, but excelled in drawing.  He constantly broke the rules and as a result obtained 218 demerits and was dismissed in 184.

He had an unsuccessful apprenticeship with the Winaas Locomotive Works in Baltimore.   He obtained a job with the Coast and Geodetic Survey as was often late or absent; however, he had the finest training in etching and learned the principles of printmaking easily.

In 1855, Whistler decided to take his $350 a year inheritance from his father and study art in Paris, France.  He copied art work was the Louve in 1858 and met met Henri Fantin-Latour, who in turn introduced him to Alphonse Legros and other artists, including the great realistic painter  Gustave Courbet. His work At the Piano was rejected by the Paris Salon, although it was accepted by the Royal Academy in London, England, in 1860.

In 1863 Whistler leased a house in the Chelsea section of London. His mother arrived came and spent the rest of her life in England. Whistler became a collector of blue-and-white porcelain as well as Oriental costumes.  In 1888, Whistler married Beatrice Godwin and they moved to Paris in 1892.  He died in London on July 17, 1903.

RESOURCES

We will utilize the Charlotte Mason method of picture. We will study the five following Whistler’s Paintings:  “Symphony in White No. 1” (the Girl in White); “The Last Westminster”; “Nocturne in Blue and Gold Valparaiso Bay”;  “Black Lion Wharf”; and “Whistler’s Mother”.

Multimedia

  • A video overview of Whistler.
  • A video about the painting “Whist

Whistler Notebooking Page (whistlernotebooking)

Vocabulary (Vocabulary3)

Quizlet

Artist Study: Giotto di Bondone

Giotto di Bondone (1267 – January 8, 1337) an Italian painter and architect from Florence in the late Middle Ages. He is generally considered the first in a line of great artists who contributed to the Renaissance.

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An overview of Giotto (Giotto- Co Op)

Picture Study:  We will utilize the Charlotte Mason method of picture study. We will study the following five Giotto works:  “Resurrection of Lazarus”; “Birth of Jesus”; “Jesus Washes the Feet of the Apostles”; “The Nativity and Adoration of the Shepherds”; and, “St. Francis Feeds the Birds”.  (Note:  On page 2 of The Overview of Giotto contains pictures of the these works.)

Multimedia:

  • A video overview of Giotto.
  • A video reading of  St. Francis’ sermon to the birds.

Giotto_Notebooking

Vocabulary (Vocab2)

Quizlet